AGV AMR difference – Detailed guide


AMR vs AGV: A Clear Choice for Flexible Material Handling

By Jason Walker

As automation becomes the new normal for manufacturing and warehouse operations in the age of Industry 4.0, the options to help you get there are rapidly evolving. Technologies like unmanned forklifts, collaborative robot arms, enhanced sorting/picking, and smart conveyors are advancing while costs continue to decrease, making these options more accessible for companies of all sizes.

One advancement that has attracted much attention is the advent of Autonomous Mobile Robots (AMRs) as smarter, more flexible alternatives to Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) for a wide variety of material handling activities. If you are considering these options to streamline your operations, it first helps to understand the difference between these two automation alternatives.

What is an AGV?

An Automated Guided Vehicle, or AGV, is an industrial vehicle that can be pre-programmed to transport goods in a warehouse or manufacturing environment.

Features of an AGV:

  • Navigation: Traditionally guided by magnetic strips or wires installed on or under a warehouse floor
  • Deployment: Requires installation of navigation guides, and sometimes requiring substantial facility renovation
  • Operational Flexibility: Altering AGV operating patterns requires repeating the entire deployment process
  • Responsiveness: Limited flexibility to adapt to changing environment or changing workflow

What is an AMR?

An Autonomous Mobile Robot, or AMR, is a vehicle that uses on-board sensors and processors to autonomously move materials without the need for physical guides or markers. It learns its environment, remembers its location, and dynamically plans its own path from one waypoint (a location or destination within the environment) to another.

Features of an AMR:

  • Navigation: Using technology such as LiDAR sensors & Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM), an AMR will determine the best route between waypoints
  • Deployment: This can vary, but great AMRs can be unboxed and put to work in less than 15 minutes
  • Operational Flexibility:  An AMR will dynamically plan the shortest path based on current conditions and requirements, if the work changes from one day to the next, the AMR’s route will change with it
  • Responsiveness:  AMRs will automatically sense and avoid obstacles and blocked paths to find the best route to its next waypoint

Cost Considerations

When weighing AGVs vs. AMRs, it may be tempting to lean towards a solution with a lower price point.  However, there are other factors that will impact the overall cost of mobile robots, and the potential return on investment for your company.


While AGVs typically cost less per robot than AMRs, you must also consider the costs you will incur to set up, deploy, reconfigure, and operate them. AGVs usually require the installation of physical guides, under-floor wiring, or surface tape to allow the AGV to navigate and locate itself in its surroundings. And if you need to install sensors beneath the floor, that means lost hours to renovation, plus the cost of the actual work.

Once you’ve prepared your physical environment, you must deploy the AGV into your operation with a predetermined path that is based on the work being done at the time. The AGV will run on a set course unable to move around unexpected obstacles that get in its way. Oftentimes, the AGV will stop completely until the path is fully cleared. And if your environment changes or the work changes, you will incur additional costs to reconfigure your system and repeat the deployment process.


In contrast, a great AMR requires no alterations to your current facility and can autonomously navigate through manufacturing and warehouse spaces. It learns its environment, remembers its location, and dynamically plans its own path from one destination to another. If its path is blocked, an AMR can reroute itself with no assistance.

The sensors an AMR uses to navigate ensure that it can operate safely in a dynamic environment alongside humans and material handling equipment. And because an AMR is not a permanent structure in the facility, it can be moved and re-deployed with minimal cost as your business grows and changes over time. In fact, an AMR can work in one part of the facility in the morning and be deployed for a completely different task later in the day.

Which Should You Choose?

AGV – Useful but Limited

If your company rarely changes, in terms of products produced, operational workflow, or in your workforce, then an AGV may be a good fit. However, if you’re in the majority of manufacturers and warehouses that see rapid changes in their material flow, workstations, or product mix, all of that change demands a smarter robot that can change with you.

AMR – Advanced, Flexible, Accessible

AMRs are collaborative and flexible to keep up with future opportunities that come to manufacturing and warehouse operations. They can avoid obstacles and unburden workers from repetitive or back-breaking work so these workers can focus on more valuable and fulfilling jobs.

Most importantly, AMRs that are easy to set up and use enable immediate ROI. If workers are able to unbox and start using an autonomous mobile robot in less than 15 minutes, without a roboticist needed to install it; then they are empowered to use these tools with confidence and take pride in making their companies more efficient and competitive.

Flexibility, advanced navigation, and ease of deployment make AMRs the perfect solution to get you started in automating your dynamic operations and empowering your valued workforce who are on the job today. Interested in learning more about our easy to use, industrial-strength AMRs?

AMR vs AGV – 7 Key Differences that Businesses Need to Know

Posted by Geekplus on Sep 29, 2021 2:21:27 PM

In the world of logistics, Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) and Automated Mobile Robots (AMRs) are household terms. Both AGVs and AMRs enable the automation of material handling and optimize the efficiency and productivity of warehouses and manufacturing facilities. As an increasing number of businesses step up automation of their supply chain, there is a pertinent need to understand the differences between the two technologies to ensure a wise investment.

Table of Content:

What is AGV?

What is AMR?

AMR VS AGV: The Fundamental Difference

AMR VS AGV: 7 Differences Businesses Should Care About

AMR VS AGV: Which one should you choose?


What Is AGV (Automated Guided Vehicle)?

AGVs are industrial vehicles that transport goods around in a warehouse or manufacturing facility. Traditionally, they are guided by magnets, barcodes, beacons or wires that are implanted beneath a facility’s surface. They rely on pre-programmed software to work, usually following a fixed route, and are stopped by obstacles in their path.

What Is AMR (Autonomous Mobile Robot)?

AMRs, which is a technology that emerged after the AGV, are vehicles that utilize sensors, processors and navigation algorithms to move around a warehouse or facility without the need of physical guides. They can read the environment and plan their own routes dynamically. They do not need to follow a fixed route and can avoid obstacles using an internal map.

AMR vs AGV – The Fundamental Difference

Fundamentally, the difference between an AGV and AMR boils down to their levels of intelligence. Both the AGV and AMR enable a degree of automation, but an AGV can at best obey basic orders to move according to a pre-assigned route and avoid hitting obstacles. When met with new or unexpected scenarios, an AGV cannot adapt in a versatile manner like the AMR. An AMR supersedes an AGV in its capacity to learn and adapt to new situations, such as replanning its route after meeting with an obstacle, and using such accumulated experiences to become more efficient and accurate over time (i.e. machine learning).


AMR vs AGV – 7 Differences that Businesses Should Care About

A close examination of the AGV and AMR reveals 7 critical differences that businesses should be highly aware of before making the decision to invest in either technology.

7 Differences Between AMR & AGV


AGV: Requires infrastructure such as wires, RFID, beacons, laser guidance or magnetic tapes to enable vehicle to move independently

AMR: Uses trackless navigation via an internal map and sensors

Flexibility and Scalability

AGV: Greatly complex and expensive task to add new routes or destinations

AMR: Able to learn new routes quickly and take optimal paths, additional AMRs can be added to existing fleet in less than a day


AGV: As a comparatively less advanced technology, it is usually the less expensive option

AMR: While it can be more expensive than an AGV, it is still cost-effective with its quick and easy deployment little to no downtime incurred, with no infrastructure cost


AGV: More reliable than AMRs due to its nature of following a rigid path

AMR: Natural and real-time response to their environment may give rise to variations in expected movement

Installation and Redeployment

AGV: Slow and complex to install due to set-up of infrastructure across facility, cannot adapt to new environments without new infrastructure

AMR: Fast and easy to install and redeploy as no significant infrastructure needed, can be relocated between facilities as shared resources


Businesses should invest in AGVs and AMRs that meet their respective safety standards. However, the following points can be considered.

AGV: Safe because of its predictability, does not proceed when met with obstacles

AMR: Rerouted paths of the AMR may unintentionally disrupt other parts of the environment

Data and Intelligence

AGV: Does not collect or learn from past data, no insight into fleet’s performance

AMR: Able to use machine learning to collect relevant data and optimize the fleet’s operations

AMR vs AGV – Which one should you choose?

After learning of these differences, it may be time to make a choice between the AGV or AMR. To help you arrive at that choice, here is some perspective.

If your business relies on traditional business models, and possesses an operational workflow that is simple and rarely changes, AGV may still be a good fit because they do their job and are relatively more affordable in the market. However, if you are transitioning your business into an agile business that aims to respond dynamically to demand changes, production line modifications, and complex new manufacturing environments, the AMR is the better choice with its intelligent technology and flexible deployment.


May your business choose the best-fit technology that will enable it to thrive within the challenges and opportunities of today! To learn more about Geek+’s AMR solutions and how they have transformed the productivity of global warehouses, access our repository of case studies.

Differences between AGV and AMR

Until recently, AGVs were the only option for automating internal transport tasks. Today, a more sophisticated technology is competing with them: Autonomous Mobile Robots AMR. Although both AGVs and AMRs allow materials to be moved from point A to point B, the comparison ends there.

AGVs: For simple programming instructions
Introduced in the 1950s, in the automotive industry, AGVs are designed to transport or tow materials. They have a major presence in logistics and allow goods to be moved within a given space without human intervention. To achieve this, AGVs can use two types of technology.

1) Wire guidance
Buried wave-emitting wires, metal rails on the ground, underground electric wires… an AGV moves by following a path plotted on the ground. The robot detects the signal transmitted by the path and follows it, as if it were on a railway track. Implementing this movement technology, and modifying the path in any way, requires work. Wire guidance is therefore suitable for simple applications but does not offer any flexibility.

2) Opti-guidance
Opti-guidance is a less expensive, simpler alternative to wire guidance and allows the AGV to use onboard cameras to follow a painted line on the ground. This solution also falls short of total flexibility, but it does not require structural work.

With minimal onboard intelligence, the AGV, in its most basic version, can only obey basic programming instructions. With wire guidance, its movements are limited to fixed routes, and the slightest modification of these routes would involve substantial work and an interruption of production. The AGV can detect obstacles in its path but cannot bypass them. If its path is obstructed, it will stop until the obstacle is removed.

AMRs: More autonomous, more flexible robots
AMRs (autonomous mobile robots) are an alternative to fixed infrastructure with high start-up costs and the relatively inflexible use of AGVs. They also rely on two more sophisticated technologies.

1) Laser guidance
This system allows the AMR to move thanks to a network of reflectors integrated into its environment. The robot is equipped with a rotating laser, moves using the principle of odometry, and uses the reflectors to define its path. The combination of these two technologies allow AMRs to orient themselves with precision. In addition, it is easy to modify the robot’s path using the supervision software included in the system. Laser guidance is currently one of the most reliable technologies on the market for automated guided vehicles. Its precision makes it the favoured technology for medical applications.

2) Geo-guidance
This system requires a map of facilities to be created and does not call for infrastructure development or work. The AMR can find its way around autonomously and calculate its path automatically. The advantage is that the mapping of the robot’s operating environment can be modified at any time. It is therefore a highly flexible technology.

AMRs are a result of the latest innovations and have used the best of existing technologies. These autonomous robots have dynamic digital maps and onboard cameras and use laser guidance. They also rely on data from cameras, built-in sensors, and laser scanners as well as sophisticated software to detect their environment and choose the most efficient path to their target. AMRs can be quickly configured and easily reprogrammed, as it simply requires a change of their path on the digital map for them to act accordingly.

AGV vs. AMR: pros and cons

1) Cohabitation with people
Given that AGVs stop at the slightest detected obstacle, they are more effective in unobstructed, human-free environments. However, they are safe for humans, since they will stop if there is a risk of collision. On the other hand, AMRs have been designed to operate in more fluid spaces, where operators can safely move alongside them. Thanks to functions enabling them to analyse their environment, AMRs can detect whether they have enough space to bypass the obstacle. These autonomous mobile robots can therefore use the same path as pedestrians without any risk.

2) What’s the cost?
The implementation of an AGV with wire guidance is a significant financial investment due to the required installation work. That said, the cost of designing the robot is limited by the fact that it has only minimal onboard intelligence. The AMR and its more advanced technologies constitute a greater spending item. However, the buyer will not have to perform any work to ensure that it functions properly. Given that AMRs can be deployed quickly and easily, they provide a faster return on investment.

What about motorization?
More sophisticated than AGVs, autonomous mobile robots (AMRs) have the advantage of not being limited to fixed routes, adapting to obstacles, and being more flexible.

Whatever the selected solution, the choice of a compact, modular motor unit with a strong safety approach is necessary (The 5 essential points for motorising an AGV). Delivered in just few days, IDX drives with or without integrated electronics meet all these criteria while delivering performance that meet the challenges of logistics and intralogistics applications: Compact, powerful and short delivery times.

10 Companies Riding the Mobile Robot Wave

AMRs have continued their expansion into manufacturing facilities and warehouses.

Mobile robot makers are located around the world, from Waltham, Mass., to Beijing.  

Many makers of autonomous mobile robots (AMRs) are relatively young. Most were started in the past decade, if not the past five years. But even though they are young, they are actively reshaping manufacturing and warehouse operations. 

Interact Analysis reported that about 100,000 mobile robots were shipped globally last year. That’s the highest ever sold. That includes automated guided vehicles (AGVs) as well as AMRs.

AMR sales strong in response to pandemic, labor shortage  

The rising adoption of mobile robots is partly because of the COVID-19 pandemic, labor shortages, and the acceleration of online ordering, said Ash Sharma, managing director at Interact Analysis and author of the report. 

Because more companies are choosing to automate, “this has caused sales in mobile robots to spiral, with nearly 70% more vehicles shipped than the year before and a 36% increase in revenues, which rose to nearly $3 billion,” he wrote. 

“It is reguarly claimed that robots will steal jobs from people,” Sharma added. “But in a post-COVID world, we see the opposite: Robots are filling gaps left by widespread labor shortages. This is particularly the case in e-commerce warehouses.” 

Check out the slideshow on the right (bottom on mobile) highlighting some of the most prominent players in this space.  

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One thing has become abundantly clear in 2021: autonomous mobile robots (AMRs) are in high demand. Earlier this morning, Locus Robotics acquired fellow AMR provider Waypoint Robotics for an undisclosed amount. New Hampshire-based Waypoint became the fourth AMR company acquired in just the last five months.

The Robot Report compiled 12 of the more notable acquisitions of AMR companies. There have been plenty of companies acquired that develop AMRs for other applications, such as agriculture, or enabling technologies for AMRs. Heck, Boston Dynamics is technically an AMR, but it uses legs to move around. This recap focuses specifically on companies selling wheeled AMRs that can navigate around a warehouse material handling applications. No ASRS’ welcome here.

The table below is arranged by date, starting with the most recent. Below the table is a short recap about the significance of each deal.

12 notable warehouse-focused AMR acquisitions

AcquirerAcquiredAmount ($M)DateStory
Locus RoboticsWaypoint Robotics9/20/21Story
ABBASTI Mobile Robotics1907/20/21Story
Zebra TechnologiesFetch Robotics2907/1/21Story
JASCI SoftwareNextShift Robotics5/4/21Story
Shopify6 River Systems4509/9/19Story
TeradyneAutoGuide Mobile Robots5810/21/19Story
AmazonCanvas Technology100+4/11/19Story
TeradyneMobile Industrial Robots2724/26/18Story
AmazonKiva Systems7753/19/12Story

Showing 1 to 12 of 12 entries

Locus Robotics acquires Waypoint Robotics: Wilmington, Mass.-based Locus Robotics is a leading AMR developer. It’s raised approximately $305 million since it was founded in 2014 and is valued at more than $1 billion. Earlier in 2021 after closing a $150 million Series E round, Locus said it had 4,000 AMRs out in the field and 40-plus customers. It also recently announced an expanded partnership with DHL.

Locus has done all of this with just one AMR form factor with limited payload capacity. Waypoint brings multiple form factors and heavy-duty payload capacity to the table, which will open up new markets to Locus and expand its potential deployments with existing customers.

ABB acquires ASTI Mobile Robotics: ABB, one of the world’s biggest automation companies, has focused mainly on large industrial robot arms and collaborative robot arms. As Sami Atiya, CEO of ABB Robotics said on The Robot Report Podcast, more of ABB’s customers began asking about mobile robots. Buying ASTI, rather than developing its own solutions, gives ABB a quick and respected way to diversify its robotics portfolio to provide more value to existing and new customers.

Zebra Technologies acquires Fetch Robotics: Fetch and Zebra worked closely together prior to this acquisition. In fact, Zebra already owned a 5% stake in Fetch before paying $290 million for the other 95% stake. Zebra was already a leading provider of warehousing solutions, but adding Fetch’s various AMRs gives Zebra more tools in its toolbox, becoming more of a one-stop shop for warehousing technology needs.

JASCI Software acquires NextShift Robotics: This was an interesting acquisition for a number of reasons, but primarily because NextShift Robotics seemingly flatlined the last couple of years. JASCI is an experienced software company with an established sales channel and customer base. It acquired NextShift to offer both logistics software and robotics hardware in a single platform that it calls “ALIDA.”

Shopify acquires 6 River Systems for $450M: As far as we can tell, this is the second-most expensive acquisition behind only Amazon’s purchase of Kiva Systems for $775 million in 2012. In fact, two of 6 River Systems’ three co-founders – Rylan Hamilton and Jerome Dubois – worked at Kiva Systems for a number of years. So 6 River Systems had deep knowledge of the logistics space when it launched.

Shopify paid nearly a half-billion dollars for the acquisition to help its customers compete with Amazon. In June 2019, Shopify launched its Fulfillment Network service that it said will speed up delivery times and lower shipping costs for its customers. Shopify’s fulfillment centers, which are located throughout the U.S., support merchants that ship between 10 and 10,000 packages per day.

Teradyne acquires AutoGuide Mobile Robots: Teradyne acquired AutoGuide Mobile Robots, which offers heavy-duty AMRs, to complement the lighter-duty AMRs from Mobile Industrial Robots (MiR), which Teradyne acquired a year earlier. Interestingly, MiR recently launched two heavy-duty AMRs and AutoGuide has struggled to meet expectations. Teradyne’s industrial automation portfolio is quite strong, however, thanks to MiR and collaborative robotic arm leader Universal Robots.

Amazon acquires Canvas Technology: Amazon bought Boulder, Colo.-based startup Canvas Technology for more than $100 million in 2019. Canvas’ first product was an autonomous cart it claimed could operate without relying on a prior map. Canvas’ autonomous cart seems like a perfect way to augment the person-to-goods workflow in Amazon warehouses. Of course, the company’s autonomous navigation technology is a great fit, too, and could be used on other systems such as Amazon’s Scout delivery robots.

Teradyne acquires MiR: Teradyne has doubled down on AMRs with its acquisitions of MiR and then AutoGuide. MiR has proven to be a better play to this point, having earned $16 million in Q2 2021 and $14 million in Q1 2021. MiR is on pace to generate $60 million in revenue this year after growing sales 1% to $45 million during pandemic-stricken 2020.

Omron acquires Adept Technology: At the time of this acquisition, Kyoto, Japan-based Omron had annual revenues of $7.3 billion, of which $2.7 billion was from its industrial automation business. Its industrial automation portfolio in 2015 consisted of delta, gantry and SCARA robots, as well as vision components and systems. Adding Adepts AMRs to its lineup diversified Omron’s automation portfolio.

KUKA acquires Swisslog for $357 million: The Swisslog acquisition added a mobility arm to KUKA’s arsenal of products, a strategic move other traditional robot arm manufacturers have made and continue to make today (see ABB). KUKA had a mobile robot of its own at the time, but it was more a work-in-progress compared to those offered by Swisslog. At the time, Swisslog primarily operated in healthcare- and warehouse distribution-related applications. In mid-2016, Chinese Midea Group acquired a majority stake in KUKA.

Amazon acquires Kiva Systems: Kiva Systems’ robots don’t navigate the same way the AMRs on this list do. The Kiva robots are technically automated guided vehicles (AGVs), but this acquisition played such a crucial role in the development of today’s AMR industry that we included it on the list.

At the time of the deal, Kiva said it would continue to sell its solution to third-party companies. Of course, that didn’t happen. Amazon renamed Kiva Systems to Amazon Robotics and the technology is now used solely in-house. This left a technology gap in the industry, which led to the creation of various warehouse automation startups.

Locus Robotics and 6 River Systems are perhaps the best examples of the trickle down effect caused by this deal. Quiet Logistics, a 3PL, used Kiva robots at a warehouse in Massachusetts. After its Kiva robots were no longer supported, it took matters into its own hands and developed its own robots. It ran this project in stealth for about three years before spinning out Locus Robotics.

Had Amazon not purchased Kiva Systems, Locus Robotics and many others in the space might not exist today.

Adept Technology acquires MobileRobots: At the time of the deal, Adept Technology had about $50 million in sales of SCARA, parallel and other fixed-position robots. It added a complete line of AGVs and AMRs to its portfolio with the acquisition of MobileRobots in 2010. Five years later, Adept was acquired by Omron for $200 million.

Autonomous mobile robots are gaining popularity with different types to boost productivity

Robotics is taking care of all industries with the integration of automation. Autonomous mobile robots (AMRs) are thriving in the global tech market for smart functionalities across the world. Number of autonomous mobile robots companies are currently focused on reducing labour costs and enhancing productivity. Automation is saving time and cost for all industries while the AMR market size is expected to hit US$8,292.1 million in 2027 at a CAGR of 19.6%. Thus, let’s explore some of the top autonomous mobile robots companies to look out for in 2022.

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Top ten autonomous mobile robots’ companies in 2022

Skydio is one of the top autonomous mobile robotics companies focused on producing the first-ever adaptive scanning software for autonomous 3D capture of any structure or scene with Skydio 3D Scan. It leverages automation from AI to generate drones that can perform demanding tasks and keep everyone safe from barriers.  


Teradyne is one of the popular autonomous mobile robotics companies to create the next-gen technologies with automation, robotics, advanced test solutions and collaborative robots. It is known for delivering manufacturing automation to boost production volumes and better quality for higher ROI. It is focused on industrial automation, semiconductor testing, autonomous mobile robots, collaborative robots, and many more.  

Waypoint Robotics

Waypoint Robotics is focused on building robots to provide industrial-strength for manufacturing and logistics applications. The wide range of robotics portfolio of this autonomous mobile robotics company includes Vector, Vector HD, Vector 3D, Vector 3D HD, MAV3k, and Enzone.  


ASTI is known for leading the mobile robotics era with advanced technological solutions. The wide range of autonomous mobile robots are offering multiple solutions such as intralogistics, logistics training, picking, robot cells, assembly lines, and many more.  

OTTO Motors

OTTO Motors is one of the well-known autonomous mobile robotics companies for offering automation in material handling tasks, helping manufacturers tackle labour shortages, outperforming competitions, and many more. Technological products include OTTO 750, OTTO 1500, OTTO Lifter, and so on for facility-scale automation with the integration of robotics.  

Fetch Robotics

Fetch Robotics is a leading autonomous mobile robotics company, specialising in manufacturing solutions, distribution solutions, research solutions, and fulfilment solutions with robotics and automation. The product portfolio includes FlexShelf, HMIShelf, TagSurveyor, Disinfection autonomous mobile robots, and many more.  

Move Robotic

Move Robotic is focused on escalating the robotics industry with mechatronics, robotics, automation, software and algorithm, and so on. The main aim is to develop its own indigenous autonomous robotics products and applications.  

Blue Skye Automation

Blue Skye Automation is known for having a deep understanding of the distribution and fulfilment canters that require complex solutions with robotics and automation. It offers customized autonomous mobile robots with standard quality equipment for specific requirements and specifications.  

Milvus Robotics

Milvus Robotics is one of the top autonomous mobile robotics companies to transform the intralogistics environment, to empower business. It offers a comprehensive range of automation solutions to handle payloads up to 1500 kg for different application needs. It helps to scale faster and decide smarter to complete any task and pave through virtually in any environment.  


MHS is set to produce transforming machines with the integration of robotics and automation. It is the global provider of material handling automation and software for distribution and other industries. It helps to deliver automated equipment to work seamlessly for the utmost customer requirements. The range of solutions supports a range of material handling processes like conveying, singulation, sortation, and many more.

Alif Vasaya provides expertise in business strategy, community growth hacking, content production, content strategy, digital ads through acquisitions, raising capital, monetizing the Metaverse, NFT affiliate marketing, consulting, and marketing advising for start-up companies.Highly skilled and results-oriented professional with solid academic preparation holding a bachelor's degree in arts and extensive experience in digital marketing, content production, business transformation, and human resource. Proven ability to assess and manage complex obstacles; viewed as a decisive troubleshooter. Successful in intense and demanding environments, providing strong team leadership and structure with a track record of motivating and developing soldiers.


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